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The building blocks of Websites

Websites are made up of a number of different coding languages – here, we’ll run through some of the main ones.

In it’s most basic form, a website is made up of two coding languages – HTML and CSS. JavaScript is added to make the front-end interactive, and PHP is added to run back-end functions and connect to databases to load content.


HTML, which stands for HyperText Markup Language, is the standard markup language used to create and display content on the web. It is the foundation of every website on the internet and is used to structure text, images, videos, and other media into webpages. HTML is a markup language, which means that it consists of a set of markup tags and attributes that describe the structure and content of a webpage. HTML files can be created using a text editor or specialized HTML editors, and are typically saved with a .html or .htm file extension. Web browsers, such as Google Chrome or Firefox, use HTML to render webpages and display them to users.


CSS, which stands for Cascading Style Sheets, is a style sheet language used to describe the visual appearance of a web page. CSS is used in conjunction with HTML to control the layout, colors, fonts, and other visual aspects of a web page.

With CSS, you can create a consistent look and feel across multiple pages of a website, making it easier to maintain and update the design. CSS works by selecting HTML elements and applying styles to them using a set of rules.

CSS offers a wide range of styling options, including:

  • Colors and gradients
  • Typography (font size, family, weight, etc.)
  • Layout and positioning of elements
  • Box model (padding, borders, margins, etc.)
  • Animations and transitions

CSS is an essential part of modern web development and is used by web developers to create beautiful, responsive, and user-friendly websites.


JavaScript is a high-level programming language used to create interactive and dynamic web pages. It is a scripting language, which means that it is executed by the web browser on the client-side (on the user’s computer) rather than on the server-side (on the web server). JavaScript can be used to add interactivity, animation, and other advanced features to web pages.

With JavaScript, you can respond to user actions (such as clicking a button or entering text), manipulate the content of a web page in real-time, and interact with other web technologies such as APIs, databases, and multimedia.

JavaScript is often used in conjunction with HTML and CSS to create complete web applications. For example, you might use HTML to structure the content of a web page, CSS to style it, and JavaScript to add dynamic behavior to it.


PHP, or PHP Hypertext Preprocessor is a server-side scripting language designed for web development. It is used to create dynamic web pages and applications that can interact with databases, handle form data, and perform various server-side tasks.

PHP is a popular language for web development because it is relatively easy to learn and use, and is supported by a wide range of web servers and operating systems. It can be embedded into HTML code and executed on the server-side, which allows for dynamic content generation.

Some common uses of PHP include:

  • Database access and manipulation
  • Form validation and processing
  • Content management systems (CMS) and blogging platforms
  • E-commerce websites
  • Social media platforms and online communities
  • Web-based applications and tools

PHP can be used in conjunction with other web technologies such as HTML, CSS, and JavaScript to create complete web applications. It is open-source and has a large community of developers who contribute to its development and share resources and tools.