Websites are made up of a number of different coding languages – here, we’ll run through some of the main ones.
HTML, which stands for HyperText Markup Language, is the standard markup language used to create and display content on the web. It is the foundation of every website on the internet and is used to structure text, images, videos, and other media into webpages. HTML is a markup language, which means that it consists of a set of markup tags and attributes that describe the structure and content of a webpage. HTML files can be created using a text editor or specialized HTML editors, and are typically saved with a .html or .htm file extension. Web browsers, such as Google Chrome or Firefox, use HTML to render webpages and display them to users.
CSS, which stands for Cascading Style Sheets, is a style sheet language used to describe the visual appearance of a web page. CSS is used in conjunction with HTML to control the layout, colors, fonts, and other visual aspects of a web page.
With CSS, you can create a consistent look and feel across multiple pages of a website, making it easier to maintain and update the design. CSS works by selecting HTML elements and applying styles to them using a set of rules.
CSS offers a wide range of styling options, including:
- Colors and gradients
- Typography (font size, family, weight, etc.)
- Layout and positioning of elements
- Box model (padding, borders, margins, etc.)
- Animations and transitions
CSS is an essential part of modern web development and is used by web developers to create beautiful, responsive, and user-friendly websites.
PHP, or PHP Hypertext Preprocessor is a server-side scripting language designed for web development. It is used to create dynamic web pages and applications that can interact with databases, handle form data, and perform various server-side tasks.
PHP is a popular language for web development because it is relatively easy to learn and use, and is supported by a wide range of web servers and operating systems. It can be embedded into HTML code and executed on the server-side, which allows for dynamic content generation.
Some common uses of PHP include:
- Database access and manipulation
- Form validation and processing
- Content management systems (CMS) and blogging platforms
- E-commerce websites
- Social media platforms and online communities
- Web-based applications and tools
WooCommerce, a popular e-commerce plugin for WordPress, provides several user roles with different access levels and responsibilities. The default user roles available in WooCommerce are:
- Shop Manager: The Shop Manager has full control over the online store, including managing orders, products, coupons, reports, and settings. They can also create and manage other user accounts with restricted access.
- Customer: The Customer is a registered user who can purchase products, view their order history, and manage their account details.
- Subscriber: The Subscriber can only view products on the website and manage their own user profile. They cannot purchase any products or perform any other actions on the website.
WooCommerce also allows users to create custom roles with specific capabilities using plugins or code. For example, a custom role can be created for a staff member who can process orders and refunds but does not have access to other settings or reports.
To reset your WordPress password, follow these steps:
- Go to the WordPress login page on your website and click on the “Lost your password?” link below the login form.
- On the “Lost Password” page, enter your username or email address associated with your WordPress account and click on the “Get New Password” button.
- WordPress will send a password reset link to your email address. Check your email inbox for the reset link and click on it.
- You will be taken to a page where you can enter a new password for your WordPress account. Choose a strong password and enter it in the “New password” and “Confirm new password” fields.
- Click on the “Reset Password” button to save your new password.
- Once your password has been reset, you can log in to WordPress using your new password.
If you do not receive the password reset email, make sure to check your spam folder. If the email is not there, try requesting another password reset or open a support ticket for assistance.
It’s also important to note that if you have access to your WordPress dashboard, you can reset your password from the Users section by editing your user account.
To log in to WordPress, follow these steps:
- Open your web browser and navigate to the login page of your WordPress website. The URL for the login page is usually “yourwebsite.com/wp-admin”.
- Enter your username or email address and password in the login form.
- Once you have entered your login credentials, click on the “Log In” button.
- If your login credentials are correct, you will be redirected to the WordPress dashboard, where you can manage your website’s content.
WordPress provides different user roles that can be assigned to users based on their responsibilities and access level on a website. The default user roles available in WordPress are:
- Administrator: The Administrator has full control over the website and can manage all aspects of the site, including creating and managing other user accounts.
- Editor: The Editor can create, publish, edit, and delete any posts and pages on the website, including those of other users. They can also moderate comments and manage categories and tags.
- Author: The Author can create, edit, and delete their own posts and pages, as well as upload media files. They cannot publish their own posts, but their content must be reviewed and published by an editor or administrator.
- Contributor: The Contributor can create and edit their own posts, but they cannot publish them. Instead, their content must be reviewed and published by an editor or administrator.
- Subscriber: The Subscriber can only view content on the website and manage their own user profile. They cannot create or edit any content on the website.
WordPress also allows users to create custom roles with specific capabilities using plugins or code.
WooCommerce is an open-source e-commerce plugin for WordPress, designed to help small to large-sized online merchants sell products and services directly on their website. It provides a range of features such as product management, payment processing, shipping options, and more, making it a popular choice for online businesses.
Advantages of WooCommerce
- Open-source and free: WooCommerce is an open-source platform, making it free to use and available for customisation to meet specific business needs.
- Integration with WordPress: WooCommerce integrates seamlessly with the popular content management system (CMS), WordPress, providing a familiar and user-friendly platform for website management.
- Customisable: With a wide range of plugins available, WooCommerce allows for customisation to meet the unique needs and design preferences of an online store.
- Easy to set up and use: WooCommerce is relatively easy to set up, even for those with limited technical knowledge, and has a straightforward interface for managing products, orders, and payments.
- Secure: WooCommerce is regularly updated to ensure security and compliance with industry standards, providing peace of mind for merchants and customers alike.
- Scalable: WooCommerce is designed to handle small to large-scale businesses, with the ability to manage hundreds of products, multiple payment options, and shipping methods.
- Affordable: WooCommerce offers a low-cost solution for small businesses and startups, with many essential features available for free, and additional features available through paid plugins and themes.
API stands for Application Programming Interface, which is a set of protocols, routines, and tools for building software and applications. An API defines the way by which external software systems can interact with a specific software component, allowing for communication between different systems and applications. With APIs, developers can access data or services from other applications, enabling integration and automation of various tasks.
What are APIs used for?
APIs are used for a variety of purposes, including:
- Data Integration: APIs allow developers to access and use data from external sources, such as social media platforms, weather services, or payment gateways.
- Application Integration: APIs enable integration between different applications, allowing them to share data and functionality.
- Automation: APIs can be used to automate tasks, such as sending emails, updating databases, or triggering events in response to certain actions.
- Microservices: APIs allow for the creation of microservices, which are small, independent, and scalable components of a larger application.
- Platform Development: APIs can be used to build platforms, such as mobile app stores or marketplace platforms, by exposing functionality and data to third-party developers.
Examples of APIs
- Social Media APIs: APIs provided by social media platforms, such as Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram, allow developers to access user data, posts, and interactions.
- Maps APIs: APIs provided by companies such as Google Maps and Bing Maps allow developers to embed maps and location data into their applications.
- Payment APIs: Payment APIs, such as Stripe and PayPal, allow developers to process payments and handle financial transactions within their applications.
- Weather APIs: APIs provided by weather services, such as OpenWeatherMap and Weather Underground, allow developers to access real-time weather data and forecasts.
- Music and Video APIs: APIs provided by companies such as Spotify and YouTube allow developers to access music and video content for use in their applications.
These are just a few examples of the many types of APIs that are available. APIs are used across a wide range of industries and sectors, including retail, finance, healthcare, and more.
If your Google Map isn’t working, it can be for a number of reasons, but the most common are detailed below.
Something went wrong…
This can usually be caused by your map not having a valid API key. Once a new key has been created and added to the site, the map will start working again.
For development purposes only
This error is usually due to the map having a correct and valid API key, but the associated billing account has been removed or the payment card used during the setup process has expired.
Once the billing account has been re-activated with the correct details, the map will start loading correctly.
How to fix these issues
Due to Google’s API setup, the API key and billing account need to be linked to the company, not the agency. We have put together a guide on how to set up a Google Maps API key and link a valid billing account to it, as well as detailing which APIs need to be enabled for your map to work.
Please open a support ticket and ask for the Google Maps API document to set up your API key or resolve your billing issues.
What is SSL?
SSL (Secure Sockets Layer) is a security protocol that encrypts the data transmitted between a website and a user’s web browser, protecting sensitive information such as login credentials, credit card numbers, and other personal information from being intercepted by malicious third parties. It is now commonly referred to as TLS (Transport Layer Security). A website with SSL enabled displays a padlock icon in the browser address bar and the URL begins with “https” instead of “http”.
Why use SSL?
There are several reasons to use SSL for a website:
- Data encryption: SSL protects sensitive information, such as login credentials and credit card numbers, transmitted between the website and user’s browser.
- Authenticity: SSL verifies that a user is communicating with the intended website, not an impostor site.
- Trust: A website with SSL has a higher level of trust among users and can improve user confidence in the site’s security.
- SEO ranking: Google uses SSL as a ranking factor, meaning that websites with SSL may have a higher search engine ranking than those without it.
- Compliance: In some industries, SSL is a requirement for compliance with regulations such as PCI DSS for handling credit card transactions.
How to tell is a website is using SSL?
You can tell if a website is using SSL by checking the following:
- URL: The URL of a website using SSL starts with “https” instead of “http”.
- Padlock icon: A padlock icon is displayed in the address bar of the browser.
- Green bar: Some browsers, like Google Chrome, display a green bar in the address bar if the website’s SSL certificate is issued by a trusted authority.
- Security information: You can click on the padlock icon or the green bar to view the website’s SSL certificate and security information.
By observing these indicators, you can confirm that a website is using SSL and your connection to the site is encrypted.
A website firewall is a security system that monitors and controls incoming and outgoing network traffic to and from a website based on certain rules and criteria. Its purpose is to protect the website from various cyber threats, such as hacking attempts, malware, and DDoS attacks.
Why use a firewall?
A server firewall is used to enhance the security of a server by controlling incoming and outgoing network traffic based on predefined security rules. The primary reasons to use a server firewall are:
- Protect against external threats: A server firewall helps to block unauthorized access to the server, including hacking attempts and malware.
- Secure sensitive information: Servers often store sensitive data, and a firewall helps to prevent unauthorized access to that data.
- Compliance with security regulations: Some industries have strict security regulations that require the use of firewalls to protect sensitive data.
- Control network access: A firewall allows administrators to control which types of network traffic are allowed to enter or leave the server, helping to maintain network security.
What are Rendering Engines?
Why do browsers use Rendering Engines?
By using a rendering engine, the browser can ensure that web pages are displayed consistently across different platforms and devices, and that the code is properly parsed and rendered. This makes it easier for web developers to create and maintain websites, as they can rely on the browser’s rendering engine to handle the details of display and presentation. Additionally, the use of a rendering engine allows for the creation of complex and dynamic web experiences that would otherwise be difficult or impossible to achieve with simple HTML and CSS alone.
What Rendering Engines are there?
- WebKit (Google Chrome, Safari)
- Gecko (Firefox)
- Blink (Google Chrome, Opera)
- Trident (Microsoft Internet Explorer, Microsoft Edge (legacy))
- EdgeHTML (Microsoft Edge (Chromium-based))
Rendering Engine Relationships
KHTML is a layout engine for rendering HTML and XML documents. It was originally developed for the Konqueror web browser as part of the KDE project. KHTML is known for its high standards compliance, fast performance, and ability to render complex web pages accurately.
KHTML was one of the first open-source layout engines and has been widely adopted and used as the basis for other rendering engines, including Apple’s WebKit. The development of KHTML continues as part of the KDE project, and it is still used as the layout engine for Konqueror and several other web browsers.
WebKit is based on the KHTML layout engine originally developed for the KDE project’s Konqueror web browser. WebKit was initially developed as an open-source project by Apple in order to create a rendering engine for its Safari web browser. Apple has since continued to develop and maintain WebKit, and it is now used as the rendering engine for many other web browsers and platforms, including Google Chrome and the Tizen operating system. WebKit is built on top of the KHTML engine and has been extensively modified and extended to support a wide range of modern web technologies and standards.
Blink is based on the WebKit rendering engine. Blink was created in 2013 as a fork of WebKit by Google, in order to address performance and design issues with the WebKit engine. The goal of Blink was to create a more lightweight and flexible engine that could better support modern web standards and Google’s specific needs for its Chrome browser. Since its creation, Blink has evolved significantly and now has many differences from its original WebKit codebase. However, it remains highly compatible with WebKit and continues to support a wide range of web technologies and standards.
The Chromium browser is based on the Blink rendering engine. Chromium is an open-source web browser project created by Google as the foundation for its Chrome browser. Like Chrome, Chromium uses the Blink rendering engine to render web pages and provide an interactive user experience. Chromium provides the source code for the Chrome browser, allowing other organizations and individuals to create their own customized versions of the browser. Chromium is widely used as the basis for many other web browsers and platforms, including Microsoft Edge (Chromium-based) and the Opera browser.
EdgeHTML was developed by Microsoft as an independent rendering engine and was not based on any existing rendering engine. It was designed to provide fast and efficient rendering of web pages and support for modern web standards. EdgeHTML was used as the layout engine for Microsoft Edge (previously known as Internet Explorer) from its initial release in 2015 until 2021, when Microsoft switched to using a Chromium-based engine for Edge.
Chromium-based EdgeHTML is the open-source web browser engine developed by Microsoft that powers the new Microsoft Edge browser. It is built on the Chromium project and replaces the original EdgeHTML engine that was used in the previous version of Microsoft Edge. The move to a Chromium-based engine was made in order to provide improved compatibility with other web browsers and to ensure that Microsoft Edge could take advantage of the latest web technologies and standards.
Gecko is an independent rendering engine developed by the Mozilla Foundation for its Firefox web browser. Gecko was first released in 1998 as the layout engine for Netscape 6, and has since been extensively developed and improved by the Mozilla community. Gecko is known for its support for modern web standards, its ability to handle complex and dynamic web pages, and its focus on privacy and security.
Evergreen web browsers are those that automatically receive regular updates and security patches without requiring manual intervention. Examples include Google Chrome, Mozilla Firefox, and Microsoft Edge.
Evergreen web browsers are designed to provide a better user experience, improved security, and compatibility with the latest web technologies. The automatic updates ensure that users are always running the latest version of the software, which is less prone to bugs and security vulnerabilities. Evergreen browsers also simplify the updating process for users, making it easier to stay up to date with the latest features and security enhancements.
Advantages of Evergreen Web Browsers
- Consistency: With automatic updates, users can expect a consistent, reliable browsing experience across all devices.
- Performance: Newer versions of evergreen browsers are often optimized for improved performance and faster page loading times.
- Compatibility: Evergreen browsers automatically support the latest web standards, allowing for a better experience when viewing modern websites and web apps.
- Security: Regular updates help to keep users protected from the latest security threats, reducing the risk of malware and phishing attacks.
- Productivity: Evergreen browsers can also improve productivity by making it easier to use new web-based tools and services as they become available.